9 TO THE READER
  CHAPTER 1
  Philosophy As a Science
14 [introduction.]
  1. The Fundamental Question of Philosophy. The Antithesis of Materialism and Idealism.
14 [introduction.]
16 Whom Do Materialism and Idealism Serve
18 2. The Concept of Method. Dialectics and Metaphysics
  3. The Subject Matter of Marxist Philosophy
20 [introduction.]
23 Marxist Philosophy and Other Sciences
  CHAPTER II
  The Rise and Development of Marxist Philosophy
25 [introduction.]
  1. The Conditions and Prerequisites for the Rise of Marxist Philosophy
25 Socio-Economic Conditions
26 Prerequisites in Natural Science and Theoretical Sources
  2. The Essence of the Revolution in Philosophy Carried Out by Marxism
29 [introduction.]
31 The Partisanship of Marxist Philosophy
  3. The Creative Nature of Marxist-Leninist Philosophy
33 [introduction.]
34 The Leninist Stage in the Development of Philosophy
  CHAPTER III
  Matter and the Forms of Its Existence
38 [introduction.]
  1. What Is Matter
38 [introduction.]
41 The Concept of Matter and the Picture of the World Given by Natural Science
  2. Motion—a Form of Existence of Matter
46 [introduction.]
47 Motion Is Absolute. Rest Is Relative
48 Forms of Motion of Matter
50 Matter Cannot Be Divorced from Motion
  3. Space and Time
52 The Philosophical Concept of Space and Time
54 The Concepts of Space and Time in Natural Science
  CHAPTER IV
  Matter and Consciousness
57 [introduction.]
  1. Consciousness—a Property of Highly Organised Matter
57 [introduction.]
59 Insolvency of Vulgar Materialism and Idealism
61 Consciousness and Cybernetics
  2. Consciousness—a Product of the Development of Matter.
62 The Origin and Development of Consciousness
63 From Inorganic to Living Matter, and Thence to Thinking Matter
66 Decisive Role of Labour in the Rise of Consciousness
68 Language and Thought
  CHAPTER V
  Marxist Dialectics as the Theory of Development and Universal Connection
71 [introduction.]
  1. Dialectics—Theory of Development
71 [introduction.]
73 Invincibility of the New
  2. Dialectics—Theory of Universal Connection
74 [introduction.]
76 Concept of Law
78 3. Significance of Marxist Dialectics
  CHAPTER VI
  Basic Laws of Materialist Dialectics
80 [introduction.]
  The Law of the Unity and Conflict of Opposites
80 [introduction.]
80 1. The Unity and Conflict of Opposites
84 2. Diversity of Contradictions
92 3. Contradictions of Socialist Society and Ways of Eliminating Them
  The Law of Passage of Quantitative into Qualitative Changes
95 [introduction.]
96 1. Quality and Quantity
98 2. The Passage of Quantitative into Qualitative Changes—A Law of Development
103 3. Diversity of Forms of the Passage from the Old Quality to the New
106 4. The Nature of Qualitative Changes During the Transition from Socialism to Communism
  The Law of Negation of the Negation
109 [introduction.]
109 1. Dialectical Negation and Its Role in Development
112 2. The Progressive Nature of Development
115 3. How the Law of Negation of the Negation Operates Under Socialism
  CHAPTER VII
  Categories of Materialist Dialectics
119 [introduction.]
120 1. Origin and Common Features of the Categories of Dialectics
  2. The Individual and the Universal
122 What Is the Individual and the Universal?
123 Dialectics of the Individual and the Universal
126 Importance of the Categories of the Individual and the Universal for Practical Activities
  3. Content and Form
128 What Is Content and Form?
128 Decisive Significance of Content and Active Role of Form
130 Contradiction Between Form and Content
  4. Essence and Phenomenon
132 What Is Essence and Phenomenon ?
133 Dialectics of Essence and Phenomenon
134 Importance of the Categories of Essence and Phenomenon
  5. Cause and Effect
137 What Is Cause and Effect?
138 Criticism of Anti-Marxist Views of Causality
140 Scientific and Practical Importance of Causality
  6. Necessity and Chance
142 What Is Necessity and Chance?
143 Dialectics of Necessity and Chance
143 Importance of the Categories of Necessity and Chance
  7. Possibility and Reality
146 What Is Possibility and Reality?
148 Conversion of Possibility into Reality Under Socialism
  CHAPTER VIII
  The Theory of Knowledge of Dialectical Materialism
151 [introduction.]
151 1. What Is Knowledge?
  2. Practice—Starting Point and Basis of the Process of Knowledge
153 [introduction.]
154 Unity of Theory and Practice
  3. From Living Perception to Abstract Thought
155 [introduction.]
156 Sensory Knowledge
157 Logical Knowledge
161 Unity of the Sensory and the Logical in Knowledge
162 Gnosiological and Class Roots of Idealism
  4. The Marxist Theory of Truth
163 Objectivity of Truth
164 From Relative to Absolute Truth
166 Concreteness of Truth
169 5. Practice—Criterion of Truth
  6. Means and Methods of Scientific Cognition
170 [introduction.]
171 Observation and Experiment
171 The Role of Instruments in Scientific Cognition
173 Analysis and Synthesis
174 Induction and Deduction
175 Historical and Logical Methods of Cognition
176 The Abstract and the Concrete
177 Mathematical Methods
178 Modelling
  CHAPTER IX
  The Subject Matter of Historical Materialism
180 [introduction.]
180 1. The Rise of Historical Materialism—a Revolution in Social Theories
183 2. The Subject Matter of Historical Materialism
185 3. Historical Necessity and Human Freedom
  4. The Unscientific Nature of Contemporary Bourgeois Sociology
187 [introduction.]
188 Renunciation of the Objective Laws of Social Development
189 Negation of Social Progress
190 Life Overturns the Views of Bourgeois Sociologists
  CHAPTER X
  A Socio-Economic Formation
193 [introduction.]
  1. Natural Requisites for the Life of Society
193 Geographical Environment and Society
194 Population and Society
  2. Mode of Production—the Determinative Force of Social Development
196 [introduction.]
196 Productive Forces
197 Relations of Production
199 Dialectics of the Productive Forces and Relations of Production
  3. The Interaction of the Economic Basis and the Superstructure of Society
201 [introduction.]
201 What Is the Basis and the Superstructure?
202 Determinant Role of the Basis in Relation to the Superstructure
204 Relative Independence and Active Role of the Superstructure
205 4. Socio-Economic Formation—a Complex Social Organism
  5. The History of Society as the History of Development and Law-Governed Succession of Socio-Economic Formations
209 [introduction.]
209 Primitive-Communal Formation
211 Slave-Owning Formation
212 Feudal Formation
214 Capitalist Formation
  6. Communist Socio-Economic Formation
217 [introduction.]
217 Socialism
221 Developed Socialism
222 Communism
  CHAPTER XI
  The People—the Decisive Force in Social Development, Society and the Individual
225 [introduction.]
  1. The People Are the Real Makers of History, the Decisive Force in Social Development
225 What Is the People
226 The People As the Makers of History
227 Growing Role of the People in Historical Development
  2. Society and the Individual
231 [introduction.]
231 The Human Essence
232 The Individual
  3. The Role of the Individual in History
234 [introduction.]
235 The Role of Leaders in History
236 Why Outstanding Personalities Appear and What Is the Source of Their Strength
  CHAPTER XII
  Classes and the Class Struggle
239 [introduction.]
239 1. The Essence and Origin of Classes
240 2. The Class Struggle as the Source of Development of Antagonistic Class Societies
  3. The Class Struggle in Capitalist Society
243 The Struggle Between the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat—a Law of Capitalist Development
245 Forms of the Class Struggle of the Proletariat
248 The Marxist Party As the Organiser and Leader of the Proletariat’s Class StruggleThe Bankruptcy of Bourgeois and Opportunistic Theories of Classes and Class Struggle
250 The Class Struggle in Contemporary Capitalist Society
  4. Classes and the Class Struggle in the Transition Period from Capitalism to Socialism
253 [introduction.]
254 The Class Struggle During the Transition from Capitalism to Socialism
255 The Attitude of the Proletariat to the Use of Force
257 5. The Class Composition of Socialist Society
  6. Ways of Eliminating Class Distinctions
259 [introduction.]
260 Ways of Eliminating the Essential Distinctions Between Town and Country
261 Ways of Eliminating the Essential Distinctions Between Manual and Brain Workers
  CHAPTER XIII
  Historical Forms of Social Communities
264 [introduction.]
  1. Gens, Tribe, Nationality, Nation
264 Gens and Tribe
265 Nationality
265 Nation
  2. Nations and National Relations in Capitalist Society
267 [introduction.]
270 The Collapse of Colonialism—a Distinctive Feature of the Contemporary Epoch
  3. Socialism and Nations
272 Solution of the National Question in the USSR
  4. The Family
276 Family as a Social Group
277 Types of Families
279 The Socialist Family
  CHAPTER XIV
  The State
281 [introduction.]
  1. The Origin and Essence of the State
281 The State as a Product of Society’s Historical Development
282 The Essence of the State
  2. The State in an Exploiting Society
283 Functions of Exploiting States
284 Types of State and Forms of Rule
285 Reactionary Nature of the Contemporary Bourgeois State
  3. Dictatorship of the Proletariat
288 [introduction.]
288 Dictatorship of the Proletariat as a Qualitatively New Type of State
290 Functions of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat
292 A New Type of Democracy
294 Various Forms of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat
  The Leading Role of the Marxist Party in the Dictatorship of the Proletariat4. The Socialist State
298 [introduction.]
298 The State of the Whole People
301 The Further Development of Socialist Democracy
303 The CPSU’s Growing Role in Communist Construction
305 5. The Withering Away of the State
  CHAPTER XV
  The Social Revolution
308 [introduction.]
  1. The Social Revolution—a Law of Development of an Antagonistic Class Society
308 The Essence, Causes and Significance of the Social Revolution
310 A Revolutionary Situation. The Role of the Subjective Factor in a Revolution
310 The Nature and Driving Forces of a Revolution
  2. A Socialist Revolution
312 [introduction.]
312 Essence of the Socialist Revolution
313 Inevitability of the Socialist Revolution in the Epoch of Imperialism
314 Lenin’s Theory of the Socialist Revolution
  3. The Triumph of Lenin’s Theory of the Socialist Revolution in the Contemporary Era
316 [introduction.]
316 The World Socialist System
318 Transformation of the World Socialist System into a Decisive Factor of World Development
320 Peaceful Coexistence as a Form of Resolving Contradictions Between the Two Opposing Systems
322 Peaceful Coexistence as a Form of the Class Struggle
324 The Deepening of the General Crisis of Capitalism
327 The Struggle for Democracy—an Integral Part of the Struggle for Socialism
328 Forms of Transition of Different Countries to Socialism
  CHAPTER XVI
  National Liberation Revolutions
331 [introduction.]
  1. Struggle Against Colonialism and Neocolonialism
331 Disintegration of Imperialism’s Colonial System
333 The Danger of Neocolonialism
  2. The Character and the Motive Forces of National Liberation Revolutions
335 [introduction.]
335 The Character of the National Liberation Revolution
337 The Motive Forces of the National Liberation Revolution
  3. Winning of Economic Independence—an Important Task of the Revolution
340 [introduction.]
341 Setting Up the National Economy
  4. The Path of Socialist Orientation
344 [introduction.]
344 The Historical Experience of Non-Capitalist Development
345 The Substance of Socialist Orientation
347 Liberated Peoples Choose Socialism
350 5. India. Thirty Years Along the Road of National Liberation and Social Progress
  CHAPTER XVII
  Social Consciousness and Its Role in the Development of Society
355 [introduction.]
  1. Social Consciousness—a Reflection of Social Being
355 The Essence and Origin of Social Consciousness
356 Relative Independence of the Development of Consciousness
358 The Active Role of Consciousness in Social Development
  2. Individual and Social Consciousness. Social Psychology and Ideology
360 Social and Individual Consciousness
361 Social Psychology
363 The Class Nature of Ideology
  3. Marxist-Leninist Ideology
364 Distinctive Features and Significance of Marxist-Leninist Ideology
365 Ideological Education in the Period of Communist Construction
  CHAPTER XVIII
  Forms of Social Consciousness. Science
369 [introduction.]
  1. Political and Legal Ideas
369 Politics and Economics
370 Political Ideas and Their Significance
372 Law and Legal Ideas
  2. Morality
374 The Essence of Morality and Its Place in Social Life
376 The Moral Code of the Builder of Communism
  Elimination of the Survivals of Capitalism—an Integral Part of Communist Education3. Religion
382 The Essence of Religion and Its Social Role
384 Religious Survivals Under Socialism and Ways of Eliminating Them
  4. Art
386 The Main Features of Art and Its Role in the Life of Society
388 Socialist Art and Its Role in Communist Construction
  5. Science
390 Science as a Form of Social Consciousness
392 Scientific and Technical Revolution and Its Social Impact
395 The Transformation of Science Into a Productive Force
398 Conclusion
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Notes