p Comrades, our conference is opening at an auspicious time. The festivities marking the 60th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution have made an indelible impression on all of us. This glorious anniversary was celebrated with great enthusiasm by the Soviet people, the peoples of the fraternal socialist countries and all progressive mankind.

p No other event in history can equal the Great October Socialist Revolution in significance. It was prepared by the entire course of development of world capitalism during its monopoly stage and was the logical result of the class struggle of the proletariat and the embodiment of the noble ideals of the working people. The October Revolution fundamentally changed our country’s destiny, ushering in a new epoch in world history-the epoch of the downfall of capitalism and the revolutionary transition to socialism and communism. To quote Marx, the victory of the socialist revolution ended "the prehistory of human society”.  [9•*  There 10 is every reason to say that the victory of the October Revolution was the beginning of mankind’s true history.

p The Great October Revolution released mighty forces of social progress which, in a historically brief period, changed the face of our planet beyond recognition. It has become the banner of peoples building socialism and communism and an inspiring example for the working people of all countries fighting against the yoke of capital.

p The experience of the victorious socialist revolutions in Europe, Asia and Latin America, with all the specific features of each of them, bears out the truth of Lenin’s idea that the basic features of the October Revolution inevitably repeat themselves in all countries.

p The socialist society that exists in the USSR and a number of other countries is the principal result of the Great October Revolution and the entire world revolutionary process. It was built by the working people for the working people and epitomises the future of all mankind.

p Led by the Communist Party, the Soviet people have made reality out of the vision of that genius of revolution, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, and have built a developed socialist society, now the greatest achievement of social progress. The adoption of the new Constitution of the USSR, which legislatively secured the gains of mature socialism in our country and convincingly showed its essential advantages over capitalism, was an event of outstanding historic significance.

p Developed socialism is being built by the peoples of fraternal countries, displaying for the world the unlimited creative potentialities of labour emancipated from exploitation. The community of socialist countries carrying on the cause of the October Revolution has become a powerful factor of social progress and an indestructible citadel of all the forces of peace, democracy and socialism.

p The October Revolution convincingly and in every respect revealed the world historic mission of the working class, which is able to form a militant party and under 11 its guidance to lead the working people in both destroying the exploiting system and building a new society free from exploitation of man by man. The October Revolution inspired revolutionaries of all countries and gave powerful impetus to the international working-class and communist movement.

p The Great October Revolution opened for the oppressed colonial peoples real prospects of national liberation. The defeat of German nazism and Japanese militarism and the emergence and growth of the world socialist system strongly stimulated the national liberation movement, ultimately leading to the disintegration of the imperialist colonial system and the emergence of new states, many of which have opted for the socialist orientation.

p The social development of the world since October 1917 has irrefutably confirmed Lenin’s assessment of the international significance of our revolution. "Human history these days,” he wrote soon after the victory of the revolution, "is making a momentous and most difficult turn, a turn, one might say without the least exaggeration, of immense significance for the emancipation of the world.”  [11•* 

p Time has turned sixty pages in the annals of history since the birth of the first state of working people. Since then the ideas of the October Revolution and their implementation have captured the unflagging attention of all mankind. As the true turning point in world development, the October Revolution leaves no one indifferent-neither friend nor enemy. The ideas and cause of the October Revolution evoke immense interest and revolutionary enthusiasm among millions upon millions of working people in every country, engender a deep feeling of sympathy for the peoples blazing the trail to a bright future for mankind, and stimulate the striving to acquire a more profound understanding of these ideas in order to break out of the fetters of capitalist oppression. In the camp of the 12 exploiters the ideas of the October Revolution arouse class hatred and the striving to prevent their spread at all costs.

p Comrades, the six decades since the October Revolution are glorious chapters in our country’s history and stages in its rapid, dynamic progress. The sixth decade of Soviet power has exceedingly important historical features of its own. In that period the country’s economic potential doubled, the technical re-equipment of industry proceeded along a wide front, the material and technical resources of agriculture rose to a qualitatively new level and the productivity of crop and animal farming increased. A most far-reaching programme for raising the living and cultural standards of the people has been carried out.

p Our people marked the glorious 60th anniversary of the Soviet state with new achievements in fulfilling the decisions of the 25th CPSU Congress. That Congress made a major contribution to the theory of the building of communism, defined our Party’s stand on the key problems of today, mapped out a concrete action programme for the Party and people aimed at accomplishing the huge and complex tasks involved in the country’s further social and economic development.

p The preparations for and celebration of the anniversary saw a particularly great moral and political upsurge springing from the nationwide discussion and the adoption of the new Constitution of the USSR. The entire Soviet people were the makers of the Fundamental Law of their life. Its discussion and adoption vividly showed the profoundly democratic nature of our system, the actual participation of all citizens in the administration of the state and their deep-rooted commitment to continue improving our political system.

p The Constitution of the USSR epitomises the vast experience of the Soviet people and the fundamental conclusions and theses put forward by the Party in recent years on the basis of a creative generalisation of the practice of communist construction, and marks the beginning of 13 a new important stage in the development of Soviet society.

p Implementation of the tasks set by the 25th CPSU Congress, discussion and adoption of the new Constitution of the USSR and preparations for and celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Great October Revolution have rallied the Soviet people still closer round the Party of Lenin and provide added convincing proof that the Party is performing its mission of political leader of the Soviet people with eminent success.

p Growth of the Party’s influence and enhancement of its leading role are the key factor in the progress of our society. The experience of existing socialism has convincingly shown that the objective need to direct socio-economic and political processes consciously, as manifested since the initial period of the building of socialism, is even more pressing in the period when socialism is growing into communism. This can be done only by the Communist Party, the organising nucleus and backbone of the country’s entire socio-political life.

p The Communist Party of the Soviet Union is the political vanguard of the working class and the entire Soviet people, uniting their finest representatives. It has accumulated extensive experience of political leadership and has learnt to awaken the gigantic creative energy of the masses and to direct it to solving the most difficult and urgent problems in the country’s development.

p In the course of many years of struggle and labour the Soviet people have grown convinced that the Party is utterly devoted to the interests of the working people and that its policy is wise and correct. Our people unanimously approve and support the Leninist policy of the CPSU and are proud of the successes achieved under the leadership of the Party and its Central Committee headed by that outstanding Marxist-Leninist, Comrade Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev.

p In all its political and organisational work the CPSU is guided by the most advanced theory, Marxism-Leninism, 14 and its knowledge of the laws of social development. The six decades of the victorious advance of socialism are irrefutable evidence of the viability of Marxism-Leninism, of its correctness and superiority over the various “theories” of social-reformists and revisionists, who can “build” socialism only on paper.

p Marxism-Leninism is a scientific theory expressing the vital interests of working people. Only socialism, which has embodied the ideas of Marxism-Leninism, is able to resolve the crucial problems that have faced the working masses of the world for centuries. In this lies the power of attraction of the ideas of scientific socialism for hundreds of millions of working people in all parts of our planet.

p The CPSU is working tirelessly to develop and steadfastly implement Marxist-Leninist theory. Its special attention to questions of theory springs from the very nature of our Party as a party of creative Marxism-Leninism, from the nature of socialist society and the nature of our tasks. Socialism can develop successfully only on the basis of science, of a creative understanding of the past, painstaking analysis of the present and prevision of the future.

p In recent years our Party, its Central Committee and the Political Bureau headed by the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Comrade Brezhnev, have made a substantial contribution to the theory of the building of communism. On the basis of a scientific analysis of socialist reality, the Party has drawn basic conclusions on the building of a developed socialist society in the USSR, defined its major features, analysed the economic and political system of developed socialist society, and the conditions and ways of building communism.

p The concept of developed socialism was theoretically elaborated by our Party in association with fraternal Communist and Workers’ parties. This is an important constructive contribution to Marxist-Leninist theory.

p The CPSU has made a thorough Marxist-Leninist analysis of the historical process of the development of the state of 15 the dictatorship of the proletariat into a socialist state of the whole people that expresses the will and interests of workers, peasants and the intelligentsia, of the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the Soviet Union, and has shown the directions to the development of public self-administration that will be fully asserted in the classless, communist society.

p By revealing the content of the communist ideal-"the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all"-our Leninist Party showed that socialism, which ensures the political freedoms and rights of all citizens, provides the actual conditions for the consistent harmonious development of the individual, for the application of all his creative powers, abilities and talents for the benefit of society as a whole.

p Comrades, the CPSU does not for an instant relax its efforts to further the development of our theory, that fount of life powerfully stimulating our progress.

p The social practice of existing socialism is developing and poses new urgent questions that must be answered by the science of Marxism-Leninism. Some problems are resolved at once, for on this depend the rate of our advance and success in fulfilling state plans. This applies to the integration of the achievements of the scientific and technological revolution with the advantages of socialism, the translation of this scientific thesis into practical, applied solutions, a quest for optimal methods that would increase the efficiency of social production, enhance the quality of work, and promote the improvement of economic management and planning.

p The most important theoretical problems concern advance towards greater homogeneity of the social structure of our society, its ever increasing unity, and the still closer drawing together of all the country’s nations and nationalities. As before, the working class plays and will continue to play the leading role in this process. No less topical for us today are questions of the social consciousness-the 16 moulding of the new man. "One of our primary tasks,” Leonid Brezhnev stressed in one of his recent speeches, "is to foster in people a desire to attain lofty social goals, to foster in them ideological conviction and a truly creative attitude to work. This is a very important area of struggle for communism, and the economic as well as the socio-political development of the country will be increasingly dependent on our successes in this area.”  [16•* 

p In its theoretical and practical activity, the Party organically gears current tasks to long-term aims. Thus, with the increasing co-operation between enterprises and the concentration of production, which are part of the process of the further socialisation of production under socialism, there are tendencies towards the future merging of the two, now basic, forms of socialist property into one form of property of the whole people. The supply of agriculture with up-to-date machinery and the comprehensive development of the country’s large agro-industrial zones are paving the way for the elimination of the substantial distinctions between town and country.

p Strengthening the alliance of the working class, collective farmers, and people’s intelligentsia is the basis for the future social homogeneity of communist society. The broad system of public education, political studies, and communist education has already secured a general powerful rise in the cultural standard and intellectual level of our entire people, of all classes and social groups.

p One could mention many other fundamental problems concerning the present and the future, to which our Party constantly seeks solutions in its theoretical work.

p Solving the theoretical problems set by the contemporary stage of mature socialism is of great international significance. The theoretical work of the CPSU and other fraternal parties reveals common objective laws governing the building of communist society, and shows the way to 17 solving problems that will inevitably confront the working people of other countries building the new society.

p Comrades, the present epoch ushered in by the October Revolution was, by virtue of its content, motive forces, and perspectives of development, the most revolutionary epoch in human history and was marked by acute struggle between capitalism and socialism throughout the 60-year period.

p The special features of the present-day confrontation of the two social systems are determined by the fact that as a result of the radical change in the balance of world forces, the historical initiative has passed to existing socialism, whose advantages are becoming ever more widely and convincingly apparent. Relying on their all-round and continuously expanding co-operation, the fraternal parties of the countries of the socialist community are successfully guiding the process of impressive social transformations -the forward march to developed socialist society and communism. The scientific basis for this is Marxist-Leninist theory which they creatively apply and develop in their countries to suit concrete conditions. It is becoming ever more important to tackle jointly and creatively those problems which relate to the present stage in the development of existing socialism and the world revolutionary process, to secure an ever more regular exchange of opinion and experience among the fraternal parties, and collectively analyse new phenomena and events in the world at large.

p The common international positions of the socialist countries are growing stronger every year and their influence on the course of world development is increasingly strong and deep. Major positive changes in the field of international relations and a turn from cold war to detente was achieved mainly by their concerted efforts.

p Detente is an important condition for, and at the same time a component of, social progress. With the easing of tension and the establishment of lasting peace are linked the vital interests of peoples and the very survival of 18 modern civilisation. This is why ensuring peace is the main content of our Programme for peace, security, and co– operation, adopted by the 24th and developed by the 25th congresses of the Party. For the first time in history, work for peace has been made a constitutional principle and is enshrined in the new Fundamental Law of the Soviet Union.

p The consistently peaceloving policy of the socialist community countries does not mean "class peace" with capitalism, but stems from the humanitarian nature of socialism.

p Socialism brings peace to the nations. Peace creates favourable conditions for the further development and consolidation of socialism. At the same time, peace accords with the cherished aspirations of all nations. It ensures life and work in conditions of security and equitable beneficial co-operation. It is natural, therefore, that in the struggle between the two opposite systems success is on the side of socialism, the system which is consistently and resolutely fighting for peace and for banishing war from the life of human society for all time.

p Peace and detente inhibit the activity of the most rabid forces of international reaction, promoting the expansion of democratic liberation movements, and creating favourable conditions for the continuing social progress of all humanity.

p Present-day developments show convincingly that world socialism is striding ahead and developing dynamically. Working people throughout the world are watching existing socialism with growing sympathy as the embodiment of their profound aspirations and hopes. They rightly regard it as a society of genuine freedom and democracy, real humanity and social optimism. The socialist world is determining the main trend of mankind’s social progress.

p Meanwhile, capitalism, rent by irreconcilable contradictions and subjected to powerful pressure by the forces of progress, is gradually surrendering its positions, notwithstanding all the efforts of the bourgeoisie to buttress its foundations. The whole edifice of modern capitalism is 19 shaken by an acute economic and politico-ideological crisis. The worldwide economic crisis of the mid-70s has grown into the deepest crisis of the entire postwar period.

p Capitalism has proved incapable of solving any of the basic social problems of our time troubling mankind. It is an ever greater enemy of freedom, democracy, and social progress. As a result, the discontent of the mass of working people is growing, political life is moving to the left, a revolutionary potential is accumulating ever more actively within the working-class movement, an objective basis for broad anti-monopoly alliances is forming and expanding, and the process of the internationalisation of the class struggle is gaining momentum. The deepening contradictions between the developed capitalist states and the developing countries are making matters still more complicated for capitalism. Every recent event vividly shows that capitalism has no future and is steadily declining.

p But capitalism still possesses considerable reserves, and monopoly bourgeoisie is not abandoning hopes of revenge. World imperialism is doing everything it can to harm the further consolidation of the forces of peace, democracy, and socialism, and to “limit” detente. The most active opposition to detente comes from reactionary quarters connected with the military-industrial complex. They regard detente and stable peace as a threat to their superprofits and political influence on society.

p International reaction of all hues is seeking to step up the struggle against socialism, and is doing so by ever more refined methods. It has unfolded a political and propaganda campaign under the hypocritical slogans of " defence of human rights”, “freedom”, and “democracy”.

p It is quite obvious that this clamorous slander campaign concerning "human rights" is in fact an attempt by the defenders of capitalism to disguise capitalism’s anti– democratic nature and divert the attention of the working people in their countries, and of world opinion in general, from the acute crisis of bourgeois society.


p The CPSU and the other fraternal parties are repulsing the imperialist reactionary propaganda attacks, untiringly exposing the parasitical, undemocratic essence of capitalism and vividly demonstrating the advantages of the socialist system.

p It is now apparent not only to us Marxists-Leninists, but also to an ever greater number of people in the nonsocialist world, that despite the efforts of the bourgeois leaders and the monopolies’ ability to adapt to the new situation, capitalism will never regain the historical initiative.

p The world revolutionary process is advancing irresistibly. Marching in the vanguard of the revolutionary struggle is the world communist movement, brought into being by the Great October Revolution. The world communist movement, which has taken shape and grown in strength under the impact of its ideas, has become the most massive and influential political force and a most important factor in world development.

p Nowadays, the task of strengthening the international solidarity of the Communists has gained special importance. Proletarian internationalism is one of the basic conditions for the further success of the international working-class and communist movement. Under the present conditions, the social base of the anti-imperialist forces has expanded and the role of internationalism and the sphere of action of its principles has grown. This puts a special responsibility on the Communists to strengthen the unity of their ranks, develop international solidarity, and rally more closely all the forces of the world revolutionary process.

p A specific feature of the communist movement today is the fraternal parties’ growing influence on the mass of working people in a number of capitalist states. In the new conditions brought about by the favourable domestic and international situation, great and difficult political tasks are facing the revolutionary vanguard of the 21 working class: to combine correctly the immediate tasks of the working people’s struggle with the struggle for the socialist perspective; further to strengthen the ranks of Communists on a principled Marxist-Leninist basis, achieving unity of left forces, and creating a mass antimonopoly coalition; to combine the Communist parties’ struggle for the interests of the working people in their own countries with discharge of their internationalist duty and mutual support of Communists of various countries in the absence of a single international centre with the parties acting independently and ruling out interference in the internal affairs of one another.

p All these problems call for thorough theoretical study based on creative application and development of the science of Marxism-Leninism and of the experience of socialist revolutions.

p The ideas of the Great October Revolution, the ideas of the struggle for peace, freedom, and socialism, are taking a hold on the minds of increasingly vast numbers of people, and growing into an unconquerable material force. Fidelity to the ideas of the October Revolution, to Marxism-Leninism, to its mighty, life-asserting creative spirit guarantees success in the revolutionary struggle, the further acceleration of the revolutionary process, and victory over capitalism, the last of the exploiting systems.

p Comrades, the fruitful meetings of social scientists working on topical problems of revolutionary theory greatly contribute to the collective development of Marxism-Leninism by the fraternal parties.

Permit me, on behalf of the Central Committee of the CPSU, to extend cordial greetings to the participants in this international scientific conference devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Great October Revolution, and to wish you every success in your work.

* * *


[9•*]   Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Selected Works in three volumes, Vol. 1, Moscow, 1976, p. 504.

[11•*]   V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, Vol. 27, p. 159.

[16•*]   New Times, No. 45, November 1977, p. 8.